Casino.com

Best Bahamas Online Casinos for 2024

1
Mr Play Casino
5.0
WELCOME PACKAGE 100 SPINS + 100% UP TO €200 BONUS
2
22bet
4.9
FIRST DEPOSIT BONUS UP TO €300
3
Spin Casino
4.9
A MASSIVE €1000 DEPOSIT BONUS
4
Jackpot City
4.9
TOP CASINO GAMES AT JACKPOTCITY ONLINE CASINO €1600 DEPOSIT BONUS + 10 FREE CHANCES TO WIN €1,000,000 DAILY

The 700 islands of the Bahamas are home to several land based casinos. Players in the region can also explore thousands of online casinos. Whether you fancy slots, roulettes or poker, Bahamas online gambling sites feature enough to keep you excited. At casino.com, we explore the crucial factors that encapsulate gambling in the best Bahamas casino websites. 

Our team brings 15 years of experience and comprehensive criteria to help you identify leading casinos. We cover the top highlights of reputable casinos, including features, security, games, bonuses, payment methods, customer service, mobile experience and more. Let’s dive in!

How We Rank and Select the Best Casinos in Bahamas 

Our team uses unique criteria to evaluate online casinos. All casino websites we rank and recommend go through the same evaluation. We review the crucial aspects that tie up the gambling experience. This includes the following:


•    Licensing and Regulation: You have no reason to join any casino that doesn't have a valid gambling license. The license is the first thing we review at Casino.com. All the websites we rank are licensed by credible regulators. We have sites approved in Kahnawake, Malta, the UK, and the US. 
•    Independent Audits: Casinos tend to market their games as the best you’ll ever find. However, only a few can meet this claim. Our team always checks if the site is audited by eCOGRA, iTech Labs, or other credible auditors. We’re sure that the casino has fair and legitimate games is we can find proof of auditing.
•    Security and Safety: A license and certified fair games are great, but your safety is of utmost importance. We only rank casinos that have measures to protect players from hackers, malware, fraud, and other threats. This includes sites with the latest SSL Certificates, sophisticated encryptions, and safety authentications.
•    Game Selection: Noteworthy casinos in the Bahamas offer an abundance of virtual games. You can play thousands of unique slots and jackpots. We also make note of popular table games like roulette, craps, and blackjack. Our review team scans the game lobby to find casinos with impressive game selection.
•    Payment Methods: Wagering on casino games for real money calls for reliable payment services. We go through the cashier section of each casino to identify all deposit and withdrawal options that work in the Bahamas. Our team looks for dependable methods with instant deposits, speedy withdrawals, zero fees, and payment security.
•    Features: The best online casinos are known for their distinguishing features. Any standard casino can present a license, an assortment of popular games, and convenient deposit methods. However, leaders invest in user-optimized UX, mobile designs, apps, hefty bonuses, sleek interfaces, and other highlight features.
•    Customer Support: Playing online should be smooth, but issues may arise. For instance, the bonus terms might not be clear. A reliable customer support team can help clarify any issues. That's why we rank sites offering 24/7 support via email, live chat, phone and other channels.

Bahamas Casinos to Avoid

We focus on ranking the best online casinos. However, you should be aware of casinos to avoid. Look for the following characteristics and avoid any casino that has any of them:
•    Unverifiable: Avoid any casino with no valid gambling license. They are probably a scam.
•    Unsecure: Stay away from casinos that have a history of security breaches. Your data isn’t safe with them.
•    Unpopular: If many players complain about the casino, the operator must be doing something wrong.
•    Unprofessional: Avoid any casino that has dysfunctional features and lots of spam ads on the website.
•    Illegitimate: Stay away from casinos that have been blacklisted and those that offer illegitimate/counterfeit software.

Reliable and Secure Casinos in the Bahamas 

A reliable and secure online casino will give you peace of mind. Your money and data will be safe and private. The games you play will also offer fair results, giving you a good chance of winning. So, how do you know if Bahamas online casinos are reliable and secure? Here are some tips from our leading casino experts:


•    Verify the License: A simple way to gauge casino safety is to check if the operator has a valid license. The license is usually listed on the casino website's footer section. Verify if the provided license number aligns with the details on the regulator's website.
•    Examine Games and Software: Reliable and secure casinos are known for their legitimate products. Check the game lobby for licensed software providers. Payment services and other software tools used by the casino should also come from credible/verifiable sources.
•    Find Proof of Fair Play: Legitimate casinos have games independently audited for fair results. The only way to be sure is to find fair play certificates. We check the site for  mentions of eCOGRA, iTech Labs, and other trustworthy third-party labs.
•    Examine Breach History: A secure casino should have a clean track record with zero cases of past breaches. Can you trust a casino to keep your data safe in the future if it has been breached before? Probably not
•    Go Through the Privacy Policy: The privacy policy and terms of service can shed light on how the casino keeps your data safe. Always remember check how the data the casino collects and how they keep it safe.

Which are the Entities That Protect Players at Online Casinos? 

As a player in the Bahamas, you are in good hands if you rely on gambling regulators and trustworthy third-party organizations. Here are some of the entities that protect you:
•    Casino Licensing Authorities: These are the regulators that issue casinos with licenses. Top regulators include the Malta Gambling Authority, Kahnawake Gambling Commission, and the UK Gambling Commission. These are some of the strictest regulators. We know they only issue licenses to casinos that abide by strict customer-protection requirements.
•    Fair Play Organizations: Third-party organizations like eCOGRA and iTech Labs conduct independent audits on casino RNG software. These labs aim to make sure casinos use certified fair game software that deliver fair results. Want to know what a good casino looks like? Make sure it i certified by one of the leading independent labs.
•    Responsible Gambling Firms: These are charity organizations that advocate for responsible and sustainable gambling. Great examples include GamStop, RGC, and Gameban. We recommend playing at casinos committed to player safety and responsible gambling. The site should feature links to recognized responsible gambling resources.

Gambling Laws for Bahamas Casinos  

Your first question as a player looking for casinos in the Bahamas may be something like this: “Is gambling legal in Bahamas?” The simple answer is yes. Gambling is indeed legal if you’re a foreign national past 18. You are not allowed to wager at local land-based casinos as a citizen or underage. This should not be a problem since no law prohibits players in the Bahamas from exploring offshore casinos. 

We’ve independently reviewed many decent online casinos with real money games and bonuses waiting for players in the Bahamas. Just remember that these offshore sites do not hold a license from the Gambling Commission. 

History of Gambling in the Bahamas

Bahamas' pristine islands attract many fans of casino gambling. These are mostly people who want to indulge their pastime in the country’s land-based gambling sites. Cruise ships that dock on the beaches can also provide gambling products within gambling hours. We traced casino activity in the country to the late 1960s. 

Online gambling has seen little to no progress in Bahamas. We observed a referendum to allow a national lottery in 2013 but nothing came of it. Some hope was restored in 2014 when the Gambling Act made lotteries legal. Nonetheless, as things stand, there are seven land-based casinos offering thousands of online slots and hundreds of table games. Nonetheless, players can find more options on offshore casino websites. The Gambling Commission currently bans locals from the seven casinos and doesn’t license any online international operators.

Future of Online Casino Gambling in the Bahamas 

Bahamas recognizes the potential of online gambling. We can tell by the current framework. The country accommodates land-based gambling but that’s all. Players looking for the best casinos in the Bahamas are restricted to sites licensed by offshore regulators. That’s not to mean the Gambling Commission and Bahamas regulators won’t create a framework for licensing casinos. Such a future is more likely than not.

Legal online gambling is in its infancy, not only in Bahamas, but also across most of North and Central America. Many states don't have a framework for licensing international operators. Players in the Bahamas will continue to join offshore sites for the meantime. This implication means you should learn how to select the best casinos. And that’s why Casino.com exists. 

Security, Safety, and Licensing of Online Casinos in the Bahamas 

We know that the Gambling Commission officially regulates all forms of gambling in the Bahamas. What we don’t see is a legal framework for licensing online casinos meaning the commission's focus is on land-based gambling hubs. You should carefully review each online casino before signing up for an account to make sure you get secure, reliable sites.

The casino license is our first stop. Clearly, all online casinos in Bahamas are licensed abroad. Our team knows what constitutes a trustworthy international regulator. We emphasize looking for licenses from authorities like the Kahnawake Gambling Commission and the Malta Gambling Authority. A license from the UK Gambling Commission is also among the best. 

You can find many other regulators operating from the US, Europe, Australia, Asia, and other regions. If the casino has a license, you can proceed to check other aspects. We emphasize on security features like the latest SSL Certificates, antivirus software, payment security, and multi-factor authorization. You also need casinos with strict privacy policies that prohibit unauthorized access to player information.

The best Bahamas casinos partner with leading security firms like Verisign to encrypt their websites and transactions. Reputable casinos also invite third-party labs to audit their games for fair play. We also prefer casinos that provide access to responsible gambling resources and additional certificates just to prove their safety and reliability.

Tips for Playing Responsibly

The regulators and independent organizations can only do so much for players. However, the most important decisions are the ones you make when joining online casinos. Here are some tips to help you play responsibly in the Bahamas online casinos:

•    Sign up only if the casino has a license
•    Play games only if the casino is independently audited
•    Deposit funds only if the casino has secure payment methods
•    Use casino resources to track your gambling activity
•    Take cool-off breaks or self-exclude to regulate your habit and prevent problem gambling
•    Use secure internet connections and protect your devices and passwords from unauthorized access
•    Set aside gambling funds and aim to pursue gambling for fun
•    Keep tabs on emerging developments to make sure you’re always using secure casinos and services
•    Explore responsible gambling resources available at the casino
•    Set limits and instant notifications to monitor your account
•    Activate multi-factor authorization and restrict who can access your casino account
•    Install an antivirus software on your devices to protect you from malware

Game Variety in Bahamas Casinos 

We can tell if a casino deserves to be among the best online gambling sites if it has a vast variety of real money games. New players in online casinos may know about slots, poker, and roulettes. However, games in modern casino lobbies are nothing short of impressive. Below are the top online casino games to try out at Bahamas casinos:


•    Jackpots: If you have an eye for big wins and fortunes, jackpots are the way to go. You can play progressive jackpot slots or find jackpots in other game categories. These games provide massive payouts, with some offering millions in player payouts.
•    Slots: Casino slots are the most well-known games in modern online gambling sites. Players in the Bahamas can explore video slots, progressive jackpots, megaways, tumble reels, cinematic treasure hunts, classic three-reel fruit machines…the list continues! We love slots because they're exciting and offer extraordinary variety. Slot payouts are also great.
•    Roulette: Fans of table games won’t pass out on a chance to enjoy roulettes. You can explore European, French, and American roulettes or other popular variants. The red-and-back wheel and board, spinning balls, and high payout rates make roulettes a staple in online casinos.
•    Blackjack: If you fancy card games, online blackjacks will definitely impress you. Like roulettes, this table game offers a way to break away from monotonous slots. You can play American and European options or other top blackjacks. Gear up to beat the dealer by keeping your hand below 21.
•    Bingo: The prospect of winning a bingo game awaits you at the best casinos in the Bahamas. Bingo involves crossing the numbers of a card. If you're lucky enough to cross off the perfect pattern, you can walk away with a fortune. Online bingo makes this opportunity instantly accessible on the go.
•    Live Casino Games: Live dealer shows are the king of immersive gameplay in modern casinos. Joining a live room exposes you to real human croupiers and real-life machines. The event is broadcast from a studio or casino, and you can join via a webcam. Bahamas live casinos feature some of the best in live roulette, blackjack, poker, and Baccarat.
•    Video Casinos: Modern video casinos offer a litany of games and experiences. You can enjoy scratchcards, craps, keno, poker, crash games, baccarat, and so much more!

Play for Fun, Play for Money

Most games began as a form of entertainment before gambling took over. You can still play for the thrills and excitement, which is what most tourists pursue in land-based casinos. However, casinos also offer the potential to win real money. You can explore demo slots and low-wager games to focus on the fun or pursue high-roller bonuses and tables if you’re excited by high stakes. Real money casinos simply allow players to deposit, wager, and win real money. 

RTP

The return to player percentage, or RTP, is something we like to review when ranking casino games. The RTP simply sheds light on the payout rate of a given game. Let’s say a game has an 88% RTP. That means the casino has a 12% edge over the long run. Now consider a game with a 96% RTP. The edge drastically drops to only 4%. We prefer slots and games with a high RTP, which reflects the average payout over thousands of bets.

Mobile Gaming and Apps in Bahamas Casinos 

All brands you'll find in our Bahamas casino list can be passed off as mobile casinos. That's because nearly all modern casinos are fully optimized to work on today's smartphones, tablets, and iPads. Bahamas mobile casinos have responsive designs that adapt to the screen configurations of your device. You can enjoy seamless gameplay on the go using your Android or iOS device.

Some Bahamas casinos have a dedicated mobile app. This means you can download the app from Google or Apple's Play Store. Once installed on your device, you can play games anywhere at any time. Even without a dedicated app, you can download a home screen icon to your device. A lightweight home screen link allows you to visit the casino directly without going through a browser.

Mobile optimization and responsiveness are important for seamless gambling experiences. If you can’t bring your laptop around, your phone will be sufficient to keep you immersed in casino games. We prefer casinos with a dedicated app because they are specifically designed to run on mobile devices. However, a mobile-responsive website is usually good enough to provide exciting gaming experiences. The best Bahamas mobile casinos are secure, licensed, and certified fair. You can also find an impressive variety of mobile casino games.

Banking and Payment Methods in Bahamas Online Casinos 

Online casinos with real money games require secure and reliable payment services. Fortunately, the banking industry provides a wide selection of secure digital payment options. In Bahamas casinos, players can use credit and debit cards like Visa and MasterCard. We also recommend eWallets like Neteller and Skrill. Prepaid cards, cryptocurrencies, and mobile payment methods are other alternatives. Let’s explore the different banking options you’ll encounter at the best online casinos in Bahamas:

Visa and MasterCard: Conventional Credit and debit cards offer secure online payments. Because of this guarantee, they are present in virtually all Bahamas casinos and are usually available for deposits and withdrawals. Visa, MasterCard, and Maestro are the three popular options. They offer instant deposits and quick withdrawals but may feature fees.

Neteller and Skrill: Our review team has settled on Neteller and Skrill, but these are only two of dozens of eWallets available in Bahamas casinos. You can use Trustly, MuchBetter, InstaDebit, iDebit, Interac, and many other options. EWallets offer more private transactions and some of the speediest withdrawals.

Paysafecard: At some point, prepaid cards like the Paysafecard were highly preferable. Many people who still use Paysafecard and other options like AstroPay Card love the privacy this payment option provides. You don’t need to disclose any personal details. Simply provide the secret PIN that denotes the deposit amount. Paysafecard is usually used for deposits only.

PayPal: Another digital payment system that revolutionized online gambling is PayPal. This peer-to-peer payment service allows you to make a deposit using only your email address. You can fund your gambling account instantly and withdrawals are also processed within hours. Some gambling brands even identify themselves as PayPal casinos, which demonstrate its prevalence as a casino payment method.

Bitcoin and Other Cryptos: The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies makes them a gem for online casino gamers. If you want an inherently secure and private payment method, Bitcoin is the way to go. The option is ideal when you want an online casino real money instant payout. We also recommend Litecoin, Ethereum, Dogecoin, and Tether.

Bonuses and Promotions in Bahamas Casinos 

We’ve come across thousands of casinos, which makes the gambling industry very competitive. To attract and retain customers, casinos constantly release new bonuses and promotions. Our review team keeps tabs on the different deals to identify the most lucrative offers. Here are some of the bonuses and promotions you should check out in Bahamas online casinos:
The Welcome Bonus
The welcome bonus, offer, or package is the most well-known casino promotion, and players love it. As you can tell from the name, this deal is meant to welcome new players to the casino. You can get a deposit match on your first few deposits. Sometimes, the casino offers free spins. Other times you get a deposit match and free spins. Here's how to claim your welcome bonus:
•    Navigate to the bonus page and review the bonus terms.
•    Go to your cashier section and deposit funds into your account. Make sure the deposit meets the minimum requirement for the bonus. Most bonuses require $10 to $20.
•    Type in any promotions code required for the bonus. Most bonuses don’t require a code, but some do, so make sure you check the terms.
•    Wait for your bonus to reflect in your casino balance.

Other Online Casino Bonuses


Once you've claimed and used your welcome bonus, you can enjoy other deals as a regular player. Online casinos real money no deposit bonus is a rare risk-free deal you can claim as a new or loyal player. The bonus s free, meaning you don’t have to deposit anything. However, you might have to fulfill steep wagering requirements. Other top deals include deposit bonuses, free spins, and cashback.

Deposit bonuses simply require you to fund your account. You can receive a deposit match, like 50% or 100%, free spins, or both bonus cash and free spins. No deposit bonuses don’t require a deposit, but you may have to sign up or play for a given duration to unlock VIP freebies. Free spins or slot spins are the currency of slot games and popular bonuses in Bahamas casinos. Lastly, cashback bonuses are rewarded when you lose money betting on real money games.
For example: welcome bonus, deposit bonuses, no deposit bonuses, free spins, etc.

Wagering requirements

Casino wagering requirements or playthrough requirements accompany most bonuses. You must meet the wagering/playthrough requirements to qualify for a payout of funds won using a bonus. Wagering requirements simply refer to the number of times you must wager or the amount of money you must generate using a bonus.  

For instance, a 40X WR means you must wager the bonus 40 times or generate 40times the bonus amount. If you received a bonus of $100, you must generate $4,000 to qualify for a withdrawal. You should also note that games contribute differently to wagering requirements. Slots usually contribute 100%. Roulettes may only contribute 10%-20%, while other games may not contribute at all.

Software Providers at Online Casinos in the Bahamas 

Now that you’ve claimed a bonus, it’s time to explore your favorite casino games. Bahamas casinos offer thousands of games from different software providers. We only recommend casinos with games from known and trusted software developers. Trusted providers offer safe and secure games with fair results. Here are some of the brands we recommend you check out:

•    NetEnt: With over 300 unique slots and table games, NetEnt is one of the top game providers. Some of its top titles include Gonzo's Quest, Starburst, Divine Fortune, and Dead or Alive 2. The games offer premium graphics and exciting mechanics, including cascading reels, sticky wilds, jackpots, and more.

•    Microgaming: Microgaming is easily the best game provider, with nearly 1,000 titles at this point. You can explore classic fruit machines, progressive jackpots, exciting themed quests, and high-paying treasure hunts. Top games include Mega Moolah, Immortal Romance, The Dark Night Rises, and Thunderstruck.

•    Evolution: Evolution has cemented its place as one of the leading game providers of live casino games. The game provider is known for offering the best experiences in live blackjack, roulette, and poker. You can also find exciting Evolution slots like Pokémon Scarlet and Violet, Maneater, and The Sapling.

•    Other Providers: We know many other reputable game providers, including Pragmatic Play, Betsoft, Big Time Gaming, Relax Gaming, iSoftBet, Yggdrasil, Quickspin, and many more. Some Bahamas casinos have up to 100 different providers. Here’s a look at some of the features of good and bad software:

Good SoftwareBad Software
Powered by licensed providersNo verifiable license from the developer
Offer certified fair results and RNGsNo verifiable certification for fair RNG
Secure software with no vulnerabilities for doctoringNo verifiable safety measures used to protect gamers
Deliver immersive gaming experiencesShallow gameplay and low value for entertainment
No glitches, delays, sudden reloading, or spam addsMay glitch, delay, suddenly reload, or display spammy ads
Received positive reviews from playersHas many complaints and negative reviews

The Bottom line
Casino software providers can make or break the experience you have playing online games. If a game is great, all credit goes to the casino, but it's the software provider that should be praised. At Casino.com, we recommend platforms with legitimate games from leading providers in the industry. This includes games with sleek, intuitive designs, safe codes, fair RNGs, high payouts, and immersive gameplay.

How to Open an Account in Bahamas Casinos 

Opening an account in leading Bahamas casinos is effortless. You can complete the process in a few minutes. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you open your account:
•    Choose the best online casino for you
•    Go to the official website of the casino or use our link
•    Click on the button that says Sign Up. It may also be provided as Join Now, Register, Create Account, or another related name
•    Enter your details, including your name, username, password, address, phone number and other required information
•    Confirm that the information is true and finish account registration
•    Navigate to your email to click the verification link sent to activate your account
•    You can now proceed to deposit funds to your new account

How to Choose the Best Casinos in Bahamas for You? 

We have covered the criteria our experts use to rate the best casinos. However, no single site is perfect for everyone. When looking for casinos, you definitely want something that suits your preferences and requirements. Here are some tips to help you chose the best casino for you:
•    Top Bonuses: If you fancy lucrative deals and casinos with week-long promotions, check the bonus section. Some casinos are big on bonuses and have deals every day of the week.
•    Game Variety: You should explore the game lobby and see if the options there are ideal. If you prefer roulettes or live dealer games, that’s what you should look for in casinos.
•    Convenient Payments: Fast payouts are universally desired. However, you may want a convenient payment method, probably one you’ve already signed up for. If you fancy Bitcoin, look for crypto casinos.
•    Mobile Experience: Not all casinos have a dedicated app. If you prefer a dedicated app, look for Bahamas mobile casino apps. You may also look into home screen apps instead of dedicated apps.

Bahamas Casinos to Avoid 

Casinos may offer flashy bonuses, and spectacular graphics that are hard to ignore. However, problems may exist behind the enchanting display. Here are some of the things to avoid in online casinos in Bahamas:
•    No License: Avoid any casino that doesn’t display its license information somewhere you can easily find and see.
•    No SSL Certificates: SSL encryption and malware detection are the basic security an online business can provide. If the site is not protected by SSL, don’t even try to check it out.
•    No Fair Play: If you can’t find details of the fair play lab, skip to the next casino. This will help you avoid illegitimate games.
•    Poor Support: Customer support should be easily accessible around the clock. Any casino that doesn’t provide reliable support is a no-no.
•    Bad Reputation: Customer reviews and feedback shed light on the quality of service. If people are complaining, don't risk your information or funds at the casino.
•    Payment Delays: Slow payment services can be an inconvenience when playing online games. Avoid sites that can’t guarantee payments.

Customer Support in Bahamas Casinos 

A reliable customer support team is essential to providing top-notch gambling experiences. When something comes up that requires assistance, customer service can provide instant answers. We expect casinos to provide multiple customer service channels. The primary options include a 24/7 live chat service and email. Some casinos provide phone support, which is a good addition, especially if it's toll-free. Live chat support is a popular channel because it provides instant responses. Email services also offer quick responses.

The support channels alone don't make up for good customer service. Our review team tests each casino to see if the support services are dependable. Exceptional customer service is marked by a friendly and readily available team. Issues should be handled respectfully and in a timely manner. Good customer support teams also have positive reviews from the players they serve. Some casinos even have awards for their excellent customer care. We examine all these aspects to find sites with leading customer service.

User Experience at the Best Casinos in Bahamas 

With all the possibilities available, there’s no reason to settle for anything less than first-class. You can enjoy the best user experience in leading online casinos, but what does that even mean? A valid license? Thousands of games? Maybe superfast payouts. The gambling experience is multifaceted and doesn’t weigh on one particular aspect. Casinos that provide the ultimate experience have harmony between the different facets encapsulating online gambling. Our selection criteria identify the core aspects of a reliable casino.

However, the best casino experiences come from innovative designs, eclectic themes, new technology, consistently growing game lobbies, dynamic bonuses, and more. For some, a well-built live dealer room is all it takes to impress. Other players want more robust features and a distinctive edge. The future of gambling also promises more personalization through artificial intelligence and immersive experiences with virtual reality. At the moment, fast payments, exceptional support, top-rated games, and a sleek, mobile-friendly design are good starting points for casinos seeking to create the best UX.

FAQs About the Best Online Casinos in Bahamas

The best online casinos with real money payouts are those with a valid license, certified fair games, and secure payments. They also have top reviews from players and offer reliable, 24/7 customer service.

The safest online casino for real money bets is one that’s verified and protected using sophisticated encryptions. We recommend licensed casinos with the latest SSL Certificates, malware sweeps, multi-factor authorizations, secure payments, and strict privacy policies.

The most trusted online casino is one with a license from leading regulators like KGC, MGA, UKGC, and similar authorities. We also trust casinos with games from licensed providers, fair play certificates from independent labs, and zero breach history.

Yes. You can win money online playing casino games. In fact, you can leverage online casinos real money no deposit bonuses to win cash without risking anything. However, most deals and winning opportunities involve real money bets.

Yes. You can gamble online in the Bahamas. All you need is an account with a reputable online casino. Note that the Bahamas does not license any online casinos. However, you can explore games available at offshore casino websites.

Yes. The Bahamas is home to seven land-based casinos offering slots and table games. However, the country does not have any online casinos regulated by the Gambling Commission. Instead, it allows players to explore offshore/international casinos.